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Endometriosis is a chronic medical condition in which endometrium or tissue resembling the lining of the uterus, grows outside the uterus, frequently resulting in pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and other symptoms. Ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the lining of the abdominal cavity are examples of pelvic organs that may develop these abnormal growths. During the menstrual cycle, the tissue reacts to hormonal changes by inflaming, scarring, and adhering, which can cause painful periods and pain during sex.

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Endometriosis (Question & Answer)

What is endometriosis?

Endometriosis is a medical condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grows outside the uterus. It commonly involves the pelvic region, ovaries, and fallopian tubes but can occur in other areas as well.

What causes endometriosis?

The exact cause of endometriosis is not fully understood, but potential factors include genetic predisposition, retrograde menstruation (flow of menstrual blood backward into the pelvic cavity), immune system dysfunction, and hormonal influences.

What are the symptoms of endometriosis?

Common symptoms include pelvic pain, painful menstrual periods, pain during intercourse, and infertility. Other symptoms may include heavy menstrual bleeding, fatigue, and gastrointestinal issues.

How is endometriosis diagnosed?

Diagnosis is often based on symptoms, medical history, and a pelvic exam. Laparoscopy, a surgical procedure allowing direct visualization of the pelvic organs, is the most definitive method to diagnose endometriosis.

What are the treatment options for endometriosis?

Treatment options include pain medications, hormonal therapy (such as birth control pills), and surgery (laparoscopic excision of endometrial tissue). The choice of treatment depends on the severity of symptoms, the desire for fertility, and the extent of the disease.

Can endometriosis cause infertility?

Endometriosis is a common cause of infertility. The condition can affect fertility by causing inflammation, scarring, and adhesions in the pelvic organs. However, not all women with endometriosis experience infertility.

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