Fibroids are small tumors that form in the uterus’s muscular wall. Women who are in their reproductive years frequently face them. Hormonal changes and genetics may play a role, though the precise cause is still unclear. In addition to causing symptoms like heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, frequent urination, and discomfort during sex, fibroids can vary in size, number, and location.
Uterine fibroids are noncancerous growths of the uterus that often appear during childbearing years. Also known as leiomyomas or myomas, these are made up of muscle and fibrous tissue and can vary in size.
The exact cause of fibroids is unknown, but hormonal and genetic factors are believed to play a role. Estrogen and progesterone, hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle, seem to promote the growth of fibroids.
Symptoms may include heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain or pressure, frequent urination, and backache. Some women with fibroids may also experience reproductive issues or complications during pregnancy.
Fibroids are often diagnosed through a pelvic exam, ultrasound, or other imaging studies. In some cases, additional tests such as hysteroscopy or MRI may be done for a more detailed assessment.
Treatment options vary based on the severity of symptoms and a woman’s reproductive plans. Options include medications to control symptoms, hormonal therapy, and surgical procedures such as myomectomy (removal of fibroids) or hysterectomy (removal of the uterus).
Fibroids can interfere with fertility depending on their size and location. They may block the fallopian tubes, interfere with the implantation of the embryo, or cause distortion of the uterine cavity. However, many women with fibroids conceive and have successful pregnancies.