A common hormonal condition affecting people with ovaries is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), also referred to as polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). It involves an excess of androgens, which frequently results in irregular menstrual cycles, ovarian cysts, and challenges with ovulation. Acne, excessive hair growth, and weight gain are some symptoms. Due to insulin resistance and hormonal imbalances, PCOS can affect fertility and raise the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and endometrial cancer.
PCOS, or PCOD, is a common hormonal disorder among women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the presence of small cysts on the ovaries, irregular menstrual cycles, and elevated levels of androgens (male hormones). Symptoms can include irregular periods, acne, weight gain, and excess hair growth. PCOS can also lead to fertility issues.
The exact cause of PCOS/PCOD is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Insulin resistance, an imbalance in reproductive hormones, and inflammation are thought to play key roles in the development of PCOS.
Diagnosis often involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood tests to measure hormone levels, and imaging studies (such as ultrasound) to check for cysts on the ovaries. The Rotterdam criteria, which include two out of three features (irregular periods, elevated androgens, or polycystic ovaries on ultrasound), are commonly used for diagnosis.
There is no cure for PCOS/PCOD, but its symptoms can be managed through lifestyle changes, medications, and sometimes surgical interventions. Management strategies often include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and medications to regulate menstrual cycles, control symptoms like acne or excess hair growth, and improve insulin sensitivity.
PCOS/PCOD can impact fertility due to irregular ovulation or anovulation (lack of ovulation). However, many women with PCOS are able to conceive with appropriate medical intervention, such as fertility medications or assisted reproductive technologies.
Yes, adopting a healthy lifestyle can be beneficial for managing PCOS/PCOD. Maintaining a balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, managing stress, and achieving a healthy weight can help improve symptoms and regulate menstrual cycles. Weight loss, even modest, can sometimes lead to improvements in symptoms and hormonal balance.